The new findings from Human Genome Organisation shows that Asian human population was populated primarily through a single migration event from the south, pointing the submerged Sundaland as the probable cradle of Asian human population
The South China Sea and adjoining landmasses had been investigated by scientists such as Molengraaff and Umbgrove who had postulated ancient now submerged drainage systems. These have been mapped by Tjia in 1980 and described in greater detail by Emmel and Curray in 1982 complete with river deltas, floodplains and backswamps. The ecology of the exposed Sunda shelf has been investigated by analyzing cores drilled into the ocean bed. The pollens found in the cores have revealed a complex ecosystem that changed over time. The flooding of Sundaland separated species that had once shared the same environment such as the river threadfin (Polydactylus macrophthalmus, Bleeker 1858) that had once thrived in a river system now called "North Sunda River" or "Molengraaff river". Now the fish is known from the Kapuas River on Borneo and the Musi and Batanghari rivers on Sumatra in Indonesia.
Human migrationsPreviously the human migrations was believed to take the direction Southward from East Asian mainland to Taiwan and to the rest of Maritime Southeast Asia. However recent findings pointing the submerged Sundaland as the probable cradle of Asian population, thus generated the "Out of Sundaland" theory.
A study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that human have been evolving within Islands of Southeast Asia for a longer period than previously believed. Population dispersals occurred at the same time as sea levels rose, which may have resulted in migrations from the Philippine Islands to as far north as Taiwan within the last 10,000 years. The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change — the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient continent Sundaland. This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. The rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the submergence of the Sunda Continent, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.
The new findings from Human Genome Organisation also shows that Asia was populated primarily through a single migration event from the south. They found genetic similarities between populations throughout Asia and an increase in genetic diversity from northern to southern latitudes. Although the Chinese population is very large, it has less variation than the smaller number of individuals living in Southeast Asia, because the Chinese expansion occurred very recently, following the development of rice agriculture — within only the last 10,000 years.
Oppenheimer locate the origin of the Austronesian in Sundaland and its upper regions. Genetic research reported in 2008 indicates that the islands which are the remnants of Sundaland were likely populated as early as 50,000 years ago, contrary to a previous hypothesis that they were populated as late as 5,000 years ago from Taiwan.
Notes and references
- ^ a b A study done by HUGO showed that the continent was likely populated primarily through a single migration event from the south.
- ^ The physical geography of Southeast Asia by Avijit Gupta, 2005, ISBN 0-19-924802-8 , page 403
- ^ Till Hanebuth, Karl Stattegger and Pieter M. Grootes, "Rapid Flooding of the Sunda Shelf: A Late-Glacial Sea-Level Record", Science 288 12 May 2000:1033–35.
- ^ Distributation of the River Threadfin
- ^ Dr. Martin Richards. "Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia". Oxford Journals. http://www.physorg.com/news130761648.html. Retrieved 2010.
- ^ Oppenheimer 1999
- ^ New research forces U-turn in population migration theory
This is part of a much larger discussion over Robert Lindsay's disscussions over the Cavalli-Sforza genetic studies on race and language. This goes with a larger chart which would be confiusing to reproduce, but it basically all means all Asians and Americans basically derive from Sundaland (Lindsay's Greater Asiatic Race, as it turns out. Lindsay also says the Saami/Finns are the oldest Caucasians in Europe and closest to Dravidians, but the Berbers in Africa are older still and have a continuity which runs back 50000 years to still more ancient Berbers[Aterians], neither of which is going to get an argument out of me)
"I still believe Amis and South Chinese, and even the Altaics came from Sundaland. As proper interpretation of genetic studies prove. Lindsay has a politicized interpretation favoring South China homeland and yet his cited reference, the study by Chu et al concluded that East Asians came from Southeast Asia(Sundaland or Mu) and nowhere can I see a South China homeland from that study. If one is too concerned about the homeland concept, you can even go further than Sundaland to India, then finally, Africa. But accdg to Solheim and Oppenheimer, it is in Sundaland where agriculture and domestication of animals originated and radiated from, away from the hunter-gatherer and nomadic lifestyle of our ancestors in Africa and in India. For now, orthodox academicians still favor the Bellwood theory and a South China origin of agriculture as against Oppenheimer's and Solheim's Sundaland theory but with their own review of the right interpretation of the newer genomic studies turning up, they'll soon shift to the latter. In anthropology, the Sundadont are ancestral to the Sinodont. While the supposed to be pure Amis have some sinodontification. If the Amis are ancestral to the Filipinos, the latter should have predominant sinodontification as well. Some are finding it deceptive; Lindsay's assertion of Filipinos are South Chinese. Might as well say the South Chinese and the aboriginal Taiwanese as Filipinos." (Comment posted in discussion at Asia's Finest)
Below, two Cavalli-sforza diagrams illustrating relatedness among ethinc groups on the one on the right, the small olive spot is "Caucasian" and the larger spread fanning out toward the bottom are the diverse types radiating out of Sundaland, including the various populations of Asiatics, Australians, Pacific Islanders and American Indians. And although this is not precisely my interpretation I will readily admit that the Sundalanders were first to colonise the Americas and that the more recent "Paleoindians" absorbed a previously-existing stratum of Sundalander "Australoids".